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What is a twisted pair

1566014650-SC-SC APC (2)

Twisted pair

The English name for the twisted pair is Twisted Pair. It is the most commonly used transmission medium in integrated wiring engineering.
The twisted pair uses a pair of mutually insulated metal wires to twist the electromagnetic wave interference with a frequency less than 25 MHz. By twisting two insulated copper wires together at a certain density, the degree of signal interference can be reduced, and the electric wave radiated by each wire during transmission can be cancelled by the electric wave emitted from the other wire. The name "twisted pair" is also derived from this.
The pair is usually twisted by a pair of insulated copper conductors of 22-24 gauge [1]. In actual use, the twisted pair is wrapped in multiple insulated twisted pairs together in an insulated cable sheath. Typical twisted pairs have four pairs, and more pairs of twisted pairs are placed in a cable jacket. This is what we call twisted pair cable. In twisted pair cables (also known as twisted pair cables), different pairs have different twist lengths. Generally, the denser the twisted wire is, the stronger its anti-interference ability is. Compared with other transmission media, the twisted pair is limited in terms of transmission distance, channel length and data transmission speed, but the price is relatively low.
Twisted pair can be divided into shielded twisted pair (STP = Shielded Twisted Pair) and unshielded twisted pair (UTP = Unshielded Twisted Pair).
STP
STP (shielded twisted pair) twisted pair has one or several layers of shielding layer, which can reduce electromagnetic interference during data transmission, so its stability is high.
UTP
UTP (unshielded twisted pair) has no shielding layer, so its stability is poor, but its advantage is that it is cheap.
Unshielded jacket with small diameter and space saving;
Light weight, easy to bend, easy to install;
Twisted pair is classified according to ISO/IEC 11801 standard. Common types are three types of lines, five types of lines and super five types of lines, six types of lines, seven types of lines, and super seven types of lines. The former has a thin wire diameter and the latter has a thick wire diameter. The model number is as follows:
One type of line: mainly used for transmitting voice (one type of standard is mainly used for telephone cables before the early 1980s), unlike data transmission, it has been eliminated by the standard.
Class 2 line: The transmission bandwidth is 1 MHZ, which is used for voice transmission and data transmission with a maximum transmission rate of 4 Mbps. It is commonly used in the old Token Ring using the 4 Mbps standard token transfer protocol, which has been eliminated by the standard .
Category 3: The cable has a transmission bandwidth of 16 MHz and is used for voice transmission and data transmission with a maximum transmission rate of 10 Mbps is mainly used for 10BASE--T, which is the minimum usage level by ANSI/TIA-568.C.2 .
Category 4 cable: This type of cable has a transmission bandwidth of 20 MHz. The data transmission for voice transmission and maximum transmission rate of 16 Mbps is mainly used for token-based LAN and 10BASE-T/100BASE-T, which has been eliminated by the standard [1].
Category 5 cable: This type of cable has increased winding density and a transmission bandwidth of 100MHz. It is used for voice transmission and data transmission with a maximum transmission rate of 100Mbps. It is mainly used for 100BASE-T and 10BASE-T networks and has been used in Category 5 lines. Alternative.
Super Category 5 line: Test with less attenuation, less crosstalk, increased near-end crosstalk power than Category 5, and higher attenuation crosstalk ratio (ACR) and signal-to-noise ratio, less delay error The performance has been greatly improved. The maximum bandwidth of the Super Category 5 line is 100MHz.
Category 6 cable: This type of cable has a transmission bandwidth of 250 MHz. The Category 6 cabling system should have a large margin at the 200 MHz integrated attenuation crosstalk ratio (PS-ACR), which provides twice the bandwidth of the Super Category 5. The transmission performance of Category 6 cabling is much higher than the Category 5 standard and is best suited for applications with a transmission rate of 1 Gbps. An important difference between Category 6 and Category 5 is that it improves performance in terms of crosstalk and return loss. For a new generation of full-duplex high-speed network applications, excellent return loss performance is extremely important.
Super Category 6: Super Category 6 is an improved version of Category 6 and was released in 2008. It is also a twisted pair specified in ANSI/TIA-568C.2 and ISO/IEC 11801 Super Category 6/EA Standards. Line cable, mainly used in 10 Gigabit networks. The transmission frequency is 500 MHz, and the maximum transmission speed can reach 10 Gbps [1], which is greatly improved in terms of external crosstalk.
Category 7: This line is a twisted pair approved in 2002 [2] in the ISO/IEC 11801 Class 7/F standard. It is mainly used to adapt to the application and development of 10 Gigabit Ethernet technology. But it is no longer an unshielded twisted pair, but a shielded twisted pair, so it has a transmission frequency of at least 600 MHz and a transmission rate of 10 Gbps.
The purchased twisted pair cable can usually be used to make the twisted pair and RJ45 connector in the merchant, and get it back. If you are at ease, you can also make it yourself, but you need to buy a crimping pliers.
The network cable from the router of the home to the computer is generally not longer than 50 meters, but the length of the network cable from the hub (switch) of the residential or residential building to the residential line of the residential unit is no problem. If the network cable exceeds 90 meters, the network signal will be attenuated. The increase of interference along the road makes the transmission data easy to make mistakes, which may cause the network to jam, the webpage to be in error, etc., causing the Internet to slow down the feeling of the network speed, but the actual network speed (data transmission speed) is not slow, but the data is wrong. After that, the network detection mechanism requires that the error frame be returned.